Frequently Asked Questions

In India, an estimated 52.2 crore people (40% of the population) still defecate in the open. Nearly 200,000 metric tons of fecal load finds its way into the soil and water bodies, contaminating them with disease spreading pathogens. There are 1.2 lakh annual deaths among children from diarrhea caused by unsafe and poor sanitation. There is still a need for ~5-6 crore toilets and urinals in the country.


The current toilets available in the market are not designed for the masses and do not address consumer preferences. Also, there is lack of standardization and the product cannot reach scale. Even if toilets are available, usage is often low due to poor construction and maintenance, poor ventilation and odour – they pose a health risk for people. Usage is also low due to lack of demand for toilets. Equal focus needs to be given to behaviour change communication to encourage consistent usage of toilets among people.

CAYA's toilets are factory-made using extremely strong and long-lasting minimum M-25 grade Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC). Compared to other toilets, CAYA’s toilets have the following advantages:

Type of toilet

Brick and mortar toilet

Steel toilet

Fabricated reinforced plastic toilet

CAYA's precast RCC toilet

Quality of final product


Very high


Very high










Very high

Speed of construction

Time consuming


Factory-made; so quick to assemble onsite

Sheets made in factory; so quick to assemble onsite

Entire product factory-made; so very quick to install onsite


Depends on quality of finish

Hygienic and easy to clean

Difficult to clean

No joints – hygienic and easy to clean

Suitability in Indian context

Depends on size, materials used and workmanship

Gets hot in summers and cold in winters

Highly flammable and brittle with risk of breakage

Suitable for all climates and can withstand high usage

CAYA is using a highly capital intensive technology [precast reinforced concrete cement (RCC)] to construct toilets for poor people and that too at a low cost. This technology is used for critically time-bound and durable structures such as bridges and metro lines. RCC is a strong, long-lasting and an earthquake-resistant material. Precast technology ensures our products are standardized, of a consistent quality, and built with the highest precision.

Maximum usage of technology and work is at the factory that means controlled construction process in a protected environment and year round construction. Also, construction is eenvironment-friendly with minimum water, energy and material requirement (minimum carbon footprint). There is minimum work at the site – installation work at site takes lesser time compared to onsite construction of toilets plus dust and noise pollution is heavily reduced.

CAYA’s product and services provide a lot of advantages for Government bodies, corporates and other distributors. Our products are made in the factory, which ensures standardized product of a consistent quality along with large-scale production at a low cost. So our customers can get a high-end product at a very attractive price. We can also transfer technology and setup satellite units. Importantly, our product offers the advantage of scale and speed – large quantities can be produced, transported and installed/assembled within days to form complexes or clusters. No specialized equipment or skilled labour is needed. The public/community toilets can be salvaged and shifted if roads need to be expanded or slums need to be relocated.

For the end-users (households, slum dwellers, etc.), CAYA toilets are an aspirational product – they are aesthetically designed and give a feel of modern sturdy construction. They are strong, durable, environment friendly, weather proof, space sufficient, well ventilated and easy to clean. Being extremely compact structures, they can be installed at a convenient location (for example, inside the slums so that people can access toilets easily throughout the day). Well-regulated operations and maintenance services for community/public toilets ensure access to clean toilets so that people do not have to struggle for hygienic facilities. CAYA’s modular toilet is the only product for a household that has a concrete roof, making it suitable for all climate conditions. It can be assembled without the help of labour and can be upgraded over time by installing an overhead tank. For space-constraint areas, we are offering a double storey household toilet complex.

To purchase our products, please contact us or email us at

CAYA’s factory is located in Rewari on Haryana Rajasthan border. At present, our monthly production capacity is 1,500 monolithic superstructure, 2,500 modular superstructure and 600 onsite sanitation units. The planned capacity is 1,500 monolithic superstructure, 4,000 modular superstructure and 1,000 onsite sanitation units.